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Renting property abroad will never be as straightforward as it is in your own language and culture, however it needn't be stressful, costly or complicated.

This article will take you through the essentials for successfully renting in Sofia, Bulgaria under the current market conditions, the procedural norms and what to look out for if a managing agent tries to take advantage.

Unlike the holiday markets throughout Bulgaria the city of Sofia has domestically generated demand that is constant and self sustaining.

The size and maturity of the Sofia' s market means that trends and patterns can be analyzed, unlike the ski or beach markets where rental is more hit and miss.

Like any major city in Sofia have good and bad areas, those that are desirable and growing and those that are not.

However, you can rest assured that wherever you have purchased in Sofia is sure to be a suitable tenant, the price will always determine the speed at which you find that tenant and how long they stay before moving onto spending their money with your competition.

How has the recession affected the Sofia rental market?
It is crucial to consider the affects of the current economic climate in order to understand the processing affecting availability of stock, tenants and shifts in market rates. Before 24 months ago rental properties in Sofia were clearly of two types; those that were modern new builds and those that we 1960's-80 communist concrete constructions.

The new builds in Sofia were relatively few in number as few 'off-plan' projects had completed, those that were finished were desirable and thus in high demand, this pushed prices up.

These off plan purchases were being made by some shrewd foreigners but the vast majority were Bulgarian owned.

It is generally accepted that buyers were investing for future growth and not for their own habitation.

However, since the recession took hold mortgages have been all but annihilated and belief in property as an investment has plummeted, the combination of these factors has made resale nigh on impossible.

Prices in Sofia have dropped by up to 25% and most owners are either facing a loss if they sold today or are into negative equity.

As a result, buyers who invested with the intent to flip on for profit suddenly all became landlords.

Simultaneously every other off plan development completed and became habitable causing an exponential wave of new properties to hit the market.

Very few can now be resold and all are suddenly available to rent.
Sofia Demography - Who is renting?

Like any populace, Sofia has a variety of sectors and cohorts who can and cannot afford the new build properties that many foreign owners have invested in.

By far the most common inquiry originates from 25-35yr old couples seeking furnished one bedroom apartments in new serviced buildings within the ring road and preferably near an underground station of Sofia.

Two bedroom apartments in Sofia are in demand but typically take longer to rent and often the additional rental income generated by the extra bedroom does not yet warrant the extra investment it took to acquire it.

However, this will change in tandem with the general standards of living, tastes, desires and affluence.

Studios in Sofia are certainly in demand from young professionals, they should always be keenly priced and well finished as owners will encounter the highest competition within this category.

Three bedroom apartments are rare and trends are not clear.

Wealthier student can also be a viable source of tenants; a 2 bedroom apartment in Sofia can rent to 6 student and in some cases it has been proven to raise more gross income than any one family or a pair of couples.
Sofia Properties to Let - Furnished or unfurnished?

90% of inquiries in Sofia are for fully furnished apartments only. It is a false economy not to furnish because tenants rarely stay longer than 18 months and unfurnished apartments are typically empty for twice as long as those that are furnished.

Tenants will always negotiate lower rates for unfurnished properties as they will have to invest into items themselves, thus between the months of lost revenue and lower gross income it is financially viable to furnish. The only advantage to having the tenant move in their own furniture is that they will be more inclined to stay longer and take good care of the apartment and its content, of course this is only true in some cases.

It is not necessary to spend 5,000 Euros on furniture, the basic essentials will be absolutely acceptable; fitted kitchen, double bed, wardrobe etc. If your funds are tight then do not purchase a sofa, TV etc; have the agent market the Sofia's property as 'fully furnished' using images of the essential furniture items whilst offering a negotiable rate depending on the tenants full requirements. Some will have their own sofa, TV etc some would rather pay slightly less and buy their own. For those who want the apartment and also want these items included then the deposit and the first month of rent can be used to fund these acquisitions so no further funds are required from your pocket.

Deal with an agent who also has the ability to furnish as well as rent, but don't pay over the top for this 'one stop shop' service.
Expats - Is it true they pay more to rent in Sofia?

It is not worth believing marketing hype that suggests thousands of expats are relocating to Sofia on behalf of multinational corporations, all need top class accommodation and are willing to pay vast sums for it. The truth is quite different. Whilst there are an increasing number of MNC's now opening subsidiaries in Sofia, they are just as aware of the market prices as anyone else and they aren't prepared to pay more for the long term tenancy of an apartment. Most large companies in Sofia either acquire ownership of properties themselves or agree low rates for bulk booking apartments, then allow their expat employee to furnish it to their own tastes / standards within a relocation budget. None of this process posses any scope for the owner to exercise further profiteering. If lettings agents pullout the 'expat card' as a marketing tool suggesting they can achieve more income by comparison to the 'rest of the market', best to put the phone down and seek an alternative agent.

What rents property in Sofia and for how much?
It really depends on what and where, however any figures that are quoted from pre-recession data or experience are absolutely inaccurate and should be entirely dismissed. We do repeatedly hear the assumption that 1 bedroom new build properties in Sofia should be rented for no less than 450 Euros / month, however this was true when there were very few on the market and when the property boom was happening, today is a different story. In every building there are distressed owners who never planned to keep their property and always intended to flip it on. Now they can neither resell nor remortgage so their only choice is to rent; in order to attract the tenants quickly and satisfy their own financial repayments they need to offer attractive prices to secure income from their investment. The same is true for developers who haven't sold the last of their stock, they have furnished unsold apartments and also offered them for rent at 'below market values'. With the market flooded tenants are spoiled for choice, two or three distressed owners in the same building competing with an equally distressed developer, prices fall and end result is a 'buyers market' which is where we are today.

Even if you manage to get a tenant to sign up at a healthy rate / profit they will soon learn that the same or similar apartment is available for less in the same building (often adverts are placed at receptions) and they will ask for a rent reduction or they give 30 days notice to move out. This has happened often over the past 18 months and our bottom-line advice is to now market at a rate that can't be beaten, get it rented quickly and minimize months of lost revenue, then plan to increase the rates when mortgages and resales become a reality in the market again.

Key points to remember:
• Rental rates in Sofia are amongst the lowest for any capital in Europe, however so are the earnings and property prices.
• Rental rates have dropped 30% in Sofia.
• Smaller apartments in Sofia are easier to let out and depending on the location and the quality of the build.
• Better to rent at a lower than ideal rate for 12-18 months than try to get what you want and have it empty for 12-18 months.
Management of Sofia Properties - How does it work and is it necessary?
If you think "No" - the tenants will need to deal with you directly, you will need to be available and speaking Bulgarian to address problems, complaints etc.

Full property management places the tenants for the same fee plus 25 Euros / month or 10% of the rental value, whichever is greater. Under this service you can have as little involvement with the property as you choose as everything can be taken care of on your behalf.

In any cases, your investment in properties in Sofia, Bulgaria will be with a good perspective.